Sometimes there’s a thought that comes to me. I wonder about the particular piece of space I’m occupying—that my body itself is taking up—and I wonder who and what else has been there. For example, in the space where I am standing, who or what was here at this time yesterday? Last year? A century ago? A millennium ago? A million years ago? A billion years ago?
If we go back in time for almost any spot of land in this area, we might find that prior to the arrival of the Europeans, there was a member of the Cayuga Nation. (And that might still be the case!) Further back in time, we might encounter a woolly mammoth. Keep going back, and we’ll find ourselves under a thick layer of ice. Go even further back in time, and we might be face to face with a dinosaur.
Then I think of the opposite. I think of the future, after I’m dead and gone. Who will occupy my spot on the earth? Maybe you can see where I’m going with this. Trapped in time as we are, we only have freedom to move around in space. To my knowledge, no one has been able to travel through time!
In his classic work, The Sabbath, Abraham Heschel reflects on my opening thought. He sees it as speaking to the very heart of Jewish spirituality. And I would say it applies to Christian spirituality, as well. “Every one of us occupies a portion of space,” Heschel observes. “The portion of space which my body occupies is taken up by myself in exclusion of anyone else. Yet, no one possesses time... This very moment belongs to all [the living] as it belongs to me. We share time, we own space. Through my ownership of space, I am a rival of all other beings; through my living in time, I am a contemporary of all other beings.”
Among other matters, this has to do with our stewardship of creation. That
includes our stewardship—our care for—the things of space (materials, objects, money). It also includes our stewardship of time, our care for it. Creation includes both space and time.
There are scriptures on the Sabbath which bear witness to this two-sided approach. The Genesis story has God finishing the work of creation on the seventh day. After making the birds and the bees and the fishies in the deep blue sea, how does God finish creation? By bringing something else into existence: rest. It is on the seventh day that God creates the Sabbath; God creates peace. The other days of creation are pronounced “good.” Only the seventh day is pronounced hallowed; only the Sabbath is declared to be holy.
That’s important because, to the best of our knowledge, prior to the Jewish emphasis on Sabbath, holiness had always been associated with certain places: such as a sacred mountain or forest. Even within Judaism, there was the temple. The Hebrew prophets would often rail against a narrow focus on the temple.
But with the Sabbath, we have holiness located in time itself. Heschel speaks of building a “palace in time.” So, when we speak of “wasting time,” we speak of wasting something precious. When we speak of “killing time,” we speak of killing something sacred.
This focus on holy space, as opposed to holy time, can take a serious toll. Space has limits on accessibility; time is something everyone shares. A perfect example of this is the Arab-Israeli struggle. There’s only so much room in the country, and certainly in Jerusalem. This has happened, and continues to happen, all over the world. There’s no shortage of disputes about finite pieces of land. We need only consider the expansion across the continent of our own country.
But when the Sabbath arrives, it’s the Sabbath everywhere.
Still, regarding the Sabbath, even if it is a foretaste of the world to come, as Rabbi Heschel believes, the seventh day “needs the companionship of all other days.” It isn’t treated as holy if the other six days are spent in activities that contradict it. The same could be said in a Christian sense, about the first day of the week, the Lord’s Day.
In St. Paul’s letter to the Ephesians, he encourages them to remember that though “once you were darkness, now in the Lord you are light” (v. 8). If we behave no differently than people who are clueless as to what it means to be a Christian, we are indeed hiding our light!
The apostle wants his hearers to live wisely, “making the most of the time, because the days are evil” (v. 16). Because the days are evil. The New Jerusalem Bible reads, “for it is a wicked age.”
It would make sense to understand that verse as referring to a certain time, to particular days, as being evil. It seems that Paul is warning the church about the times in which it lives. But it seems it’s also possible to take that line, “because the days are evil,” in a more general sense. Could it also be a comment about time itself?
Heschel says, “Most of us seem to labor for the sake of things of space. As a result we suffer from a deeply rooted dread of time and stand aghast when compelled to look into its face. Time to us is sarcasm, a slick treacherous monster with a jaw like a furnace incinerating every moment of our lives.”
Unfortunately, we flee to the realm of space—to the realm of possessions. We sense time slipping away, like sand through the hourglass, and by getting…stuff, we try to fill the hole that our apprehension, our anxiety. has dug. Americans are great at this! We work to get more and more money so that we can buy more and more things—and the more things we have, the more we have to take care of. Which means there’s more to fix, or simply replace, and that means more to go into the trash. Really, it’s not a wise use of space or time!
When Paul advises his audience to make the most of the time, he literally says “redeem the time.” While we lack the power to redeem ourselves or anyone else, we do have the power to redeem the time that’s been given to us. Time need not be the slick treacherous monster. It can be appreciated for what it is: a gift from God. Instead of wasting or killing it, we can treat it as part of God’s good (even holy) creation.
I realize that it’s one thing to say all that; it’s another to live it. Kristen Johnson Ingram, a preacher in the Episcopal Church, asks the question, “How do I treat the gift of sacramental time? Is my desk an altar, is our dinner table a Eucharist, is this house a temple?” she wonders.
“Not always. This morning my husband and I argued about the trash. We were not wide awake while we juggled wastebaskets and sacks and tried to organize the recycling boxes, and he swore at me. In fact, he used a short, unpleasant obscenity that made my cheeks get hot and my already irregular heartbeat go into a second of frenzy.”
She continues, “I wanted to have back the moment before he cursed; I wanted the earlier time returned to me. Instead of waiting to see if the sands would run backward, I made a fuss, saying loudly that I did not deserve that language and he had no right to use it. We quarreled for a moment, and then it was too late to snatch back the time. I microwaved a bowl of oatmeal and ate it with no pleasure, gulped a cup of coffee seasoned with rancor. I smacked time and sent it yipping away.”
Does this sound familiar? I know I’m not the only one here to wish I could have the moment back—or even to relive the entire day. I think of times when I’ve been guided by folly and not wisdom, and I cringe. And then there are the times when placed at a crossroads, and I refused to choose. I refused to redeem the gift of time given to me by God. So what conclusion does Ingram reach?
“We did not stay mad,” she says. “I came into my office and started writing and I could hear the news from his radio in the next room. We called out our opinions about the freak storm and the situation in the Middle East. I remembered to dash into the utility room to take meat from the freezer so I could make my famous pot roast of pork with cilantro and orange for dinner. He did some laundry. There was no permanent damage.
“Or was there? We can never have the time back… God holds out the sacrament of time and sometimes I turn away to partake of something else. Today my husband and I committed an egregious sin—and this was only an eighteen-second skirmish.”
Too often, our time together results less in holiness and more in strife.
I began by mentioning all that has come before in the place I occupy on the earth, as well as all that will follow. We are set within the stream of time and are therefore in relationship with the past and the future.
We are told to redeem time. Our power for such is a pale shadow of the one who redeems it all. The Lord Jesus Christ redeems all of time, not simply the sliver we call the present. Jesus is Lord over all—all of creation, all of time. Nothing can separate us from his all-embracing love: “nor things present, nor things to come…” (Ro 8:38).
Let’s hear again Abraham Heschel as he expresses the glorious truth, “One must be overawed by the marvel of time to be ready to perceive the presence of eternity in a single moment. One must live and act as if the fate of all of time would depend on a single moment.”
God creates the Sabbath; God pronounces rest. Jesus is our Sabbath rest. Jesus as the Christ encapsulates all of eternity in a single moment, in the wink of an eye.
We cease our struggling. We cease our running. We cease our pointless bearing of burdens. We cease imposing them on others, and we cease accepting them from others. We cease shaming others and trying to bend themselves to our will. We cease our foolish resistance.
How will you honor and enjoy Sabbath? How will you redeem time?
 Abraham Heschel, The Sabbath (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1951), 99.
 Heschel, 15.
 Heschel, 89.
 Heschel, 5.
 “redeem” is εξαγοράζω (exagorazō)
 Kristen Johnson Ingram, “The Sacrament of Time,” Weavings 14:1 (Jan-Feb 1999): 29.
 Ingram, 30.
 Heschel, 76.