After looking at my sermon title, I realize that it could lead to some unintended conclusions. Raising the question as to whether or not conflict could be considered a “gift” might suggest that I enjoy conflict—even possibly that I seek it out. I’m just itching for a fight! I assure you, that is not the truth.
One day, Banu was looking through some old files. She found a folder that contained some documents from when we were at seminary, when we were just beginning the ordination process. We were in the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and their Committee on Preparation for Ministry had us fill out some forms.
There was one that asked about our challenges / weaknesses. I wrote something along the lines of needing to be more assertive, especially in situations of conflict. That was 1994. All these years later, I think I would include that in the list. I’ve made some progress in being more assertive and a less anxious presence in the midst of conflict, but I still have a ways to go.
So, no, I do not enjoy conflict.
It would seem from Matthew 5 that Jesus doesn’t either. In fact, it looks like when presented with conflict, he simply wimps out! Look at how our scripture begins. Jesus tells the people, “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to you, Do not resist an evildoer. But if anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also” (vv. 38-39).
The “eye for an eye” Jesus starts with is the lex talionis. That’s Latin for the “law of retaliation.”
We often hear calls for law and order, for greater security, based on this idea—an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. This one often finds its way into arguments for the death penalty. It seems to provide for a very stern, no holds barred style of justice. However, that’s only true if we take the principle of “an eye for an eye” completely out of context.
The late Francis Beare wrote, “The lex talionis was in its time a social advance of great magnitude; it put an end to the vendetta, the blood feud, which allowed unlimited retaliation for an injury done to a member of the family or tribe, so that an entire group could be wiped out before the demands for vengeance were satisfied.”
To our 21st century ears, that law “sounds savage, but it was actually a softening of the primitive fierceness of the feud, which set no limits to the revenge” that could be taken. The idea was, if you kill one of ours, we’ll kill two of yours—and then, doing the math, we can see how it would escalate.
Still, Jesus doesn’t say limit revenge to “the same injury; Jesus declares that we must take no revenge at all.” When he says, “Do not resist an evildoer,” he says don’t worry about getting payback (v. 39).
There’s one verse that isn’t so much a question of revenge. Jesus tells his disciples, “Give to everyone who begs from you, and do not refuse anyone who wants to borrow from you” (v. 42). I wonder, would that include lending your car to someone who returns it with an empty gas tank?
It looks like everything Jesus says in our gospel text runs contrary to what we usually do. (Or at least, we might do it with a great deal of hesitation!) Why is that? Is this ethic he lays out something that can actually be done? Many people simply say “no.” Many people say Jesus is exaggerating to make a point. I’m not sure I’m totally on board with that!
In any event, I find the phrase in verse 39 especially interesting: “if anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also.” Again, there are many takes on what Jesus means by this, but I find the comments of Speed Leas, a consultant on congregational conflict, to be useful.
“What that means to me,” he says, “is that when the battle has begun, I do not leave, nor do I attack. I stay there. I stay in range of getting hit again. I take the risk of not destroying the other person or leaving the scene.” According to Leas, Jesus tells us to resist the “fight, flight, or freeze” reaction. You know what that is: the temptation, when faced with a conflict, to lash out, to take off, or to become paralyzed!
There’s something that tends to handcuff us when dealing with conflict. This is true for all people, but I think it might be especially true for those in the church. We tend to see conflict as inherently bad, something to always steer clear of.
Episcopal priest Caroline Westerhoff talks about this. “Conflict is not just inevitable… Instead it is part of the divine plan, a gift.” So here’s the question I raise in my sermon title—with a little emphasis on the bit about it being “a divine gift.” How in the world can conflict be a gift?
According to Westerhoff, conflict is part of the creative process. Almost any story or movie has an element of conflict. There’s the protagonist and the antagonist. Conflict is indeed inevitable; it’s built into creation itself. Animals engage in conflict for food. In a way, humans do, as well. We certainly find ourselves in many different kinds of struggle. A big part of the artistic process is struggling with ourselves and with God. Westerhoff says that “newness cannot come without conflict.”
As we all know, we have differences. We look, think, act, smell, vote differently! That’s how we’ve been created. One of the main reasons for conflict is due to the fact that we’re not all alike. We aren’t copies of each other. We often try to impose a level of sameness on each other, but it’s a mistake.
If we can’t, or shouldn’t, avoid conflict—if it can’t be prevented—what we can and should do is to manage it. We need to guide it, set boundaries around it. (Recall what I said about the lex talionis, “an eye for an eye” being a boundary, a limit.) We have to use conflict for constructive, and not destructive, purposes.
Westerhoff continues, “To manage conflict then would be to allow it, not suppress it; to open our doors and windows to its fresh wind.” I must say that I don’t often think of conflict as being a breath of fresh air!
“Following this line of thought to its ultimate conclusion, violence and war becomes not conflict run amuck, conflict out of all bounds, but the final outcome of conflict quelled. They result when we will not allow the other to be different, when we deny our life-giving dependence on the different one with all our might and means.”
Proverbs 27:17 says, “As iron sharpens iron, so one person sharpens another.”
We recently had the mid-term elections. There’s no debating that our country is divided. That’s been true for a long time. No matter your political orientation, no matter who you voted for, I think I’m safe in saying that there has been a narrative of not allowing the other to be different. Sadly, there’s almost an assumption when someone from “the other side” makes a suggestion, it is automatically to be rejected. There’s been a narrative of denying our life-giving dependence on the different one.
In that context, Jesus seems to wimp out again in verses 43 and 44. “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” Really, that sounds outrageous!
Far from wimping out, what Jesus proposes takes a great deal of courage.
In another congregation, I asked the session to read the book, Congregational Leadership in Anxious Times by Peter Steinke. (At the time, I mentioned that people are always anxious at some level, so this book would probably always work.) He doesn’t exactly use the language of “loving the enemy,” though sometimes it might feel that way when we’re in the midst of conflict.
In the book’s Acknowledgements, he salutes “the unnamed congregational leaders and members who have influenced my thinking through their wisdom, counsel, and especially courageous action. They deeply cared for their congregations in such a way that they were willing to risk the displeasure of others, even to the point of being demonized.” Remember, these are church folk! “They resisted giving in to the pressure of the moment if it meant forsaking their integrity.”
Remember what I said at the beginning about recognizing my own need to keep working on being assertive in situations of conflict? Friends, this is not easy. That’s why we let things go for so long that we know in our heart of hearts need to be addressed.
One of those things is gossip. Not long ago, I preached a sermon based on the grumblings against Moses in the desert. It is sin. We all are prone to gossip and grumbling, including (yes), myself! When we put darkness—curses instead of blessings—out into the universe, it comes back to us. Darkness is a heavy thing to carry around. It infects us.
Twice in our scripture text, Jesus says, “You have heard that it was said… But I say to you…” In the midst of conflict, Jesus shows us the way forward.
In the midst of conflict, it can feel like the walls are closing in. We can feel tightness in our chest. I have felt that myself. We need to remember to breathe. We need to remember that the Spirit is within us. But we also need to remember to actually breathe! There’s nothing like being still, taking some deep breaths, and getting oxygen into the lungs to help us regain some perspective.
Jesus closes by saying, “Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (v. 48). That sounds like a tall order! But this isn’t “perfect” in the sense of being flawless; this is “perfect” in the sense of being “perfected,” of being made whole. Be complete. That is the Lord’s desire for us.
We are fragmented, broken creatures. We are not whole. Still, in the strange and unwanted gift that is conflict, we come together. Sometimes we come together by crashing into each other. But thanks be to God, in all of that craziness and pain, the Spirit is there to lead us into new avenues of truth, replacing insult with blessing.
We need that now more than ever.
 Francis Beare, The Gospel According to Matthew (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1981),158.
 Caroline Westerhoff, “Conflict: The Birthing of the New,” Conflict Management in Congregations, 56.
 Westerhoff, 56.
 Westerhoff, 57.
 Peter Steinke, Congregational Leadership in Anxious Times (Herndon, VA: The Alban Institute, 2006).
 Steinke, xv.